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What is Carbon Credit?

It is a kind of environmental currency, which can be obtained through projects that absorb GHG (Greenhouse Gases) from the atmosphere, for example:
Fossil fuels emission reduction; Replacement of fossil fuels with clean and renewable energy, such as wind, solar, biomass, SHP (Small Hydroelectric Powerplant) etc;
Use of emissions that would otherwise be discharged into the atmosphere (landfill methane), for energy production;
Reforastation.

In Brazil, we have great potential for "carbon credits" generating. The size of forestry sector is unparalleled, our energy matrix is unique and does not lacking physical, geographic and climatic factors favorable to the development of clean environmentally energy sources.

What is the Greenhouse Effect?

Phenomenon caused by the accumulation of certain gases in the atmosphere, known popularly known as greenhouse gases (GHGs), which cause heat retention and warming of the earth's surface. Under the Kyoto Protocol, the following GHGs are regulated: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbon (HFC), perfluorocarbon (PFC), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). The increase in the concentration of these gases in the atmosphere is the resulted of human action, especially on the following activities: burning fossil fuels and biomass (CO2 and N2O); decomposition of organic matter (CH4); industrial activities, refrigeration, use of propellants, expanded foams and solvents (HFC and SF6); and use of fertilizers (N2O).

Paris Agreement

The Paris Agreement is a legally binding international treaty on climate change. It was adopted by 196 Parties at COP 21 in Paris, on 12 December 2015 and entered into force on 4 November 2016.

Its goal is to limit global warming to well below 2, preferably to 1.5 degrees Celsius, compared to pre-industrial levels.

To achieve this long-term temperature goal, countries aim to reach global peaking of greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible to achieve a climate neutral world by mid-century.

The Paris Agreement is a landmark in the multilateral climate change process because, for the first time, a binding agreement brings all nations into a common cause to undertake ambitious efforts to combat climate change and adapt to its effects.

For more information visit:

https://unfccc.int/process-and-meetings/the-paris-agreement/the-paris-agreement

Kyoto Protocol

The Kyoto Protocol was adopted on December 11, 1997. Due to a complex ratification process, it came into force on February 16, 2005. Reaching 192 countries in the Kyoto Protocol.

In short, the Kyoto Protocol operationalizes the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change by commit industrialized countries and economies in transition to limit and reduce greenhouse gas emissions greenhouse effect (GHG) according to the agreed individual targets. The Convention itself only asks these countries that adopt mitigation policies and measures and submit periodic reports.

The Kyoto Protocol is based on the principles and provisions of the Convention and follows its structure based on attachments. It only binds developed countries and burdens them further under the principle of "common but differentiated responsibility and respective capacities", as it recognizes that they are the responsible for the current high levels of GHG emissions into the atmosphere.

In its Annex B, the Kyoto Protocol establishes mandatory emission reduction targets for 37 countries industrialized countries and economies in transition and to the European Union. Overall, these goals add up to a reduction average of 5% in emissions compared to 1990 levels over the five-year period 2008-2012 (the first commitment period).

You can check the Kyoto Protocol in full at:

https://unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol